RAM Error Check in Windows

mdsched.exe

Not found in Windows XP. But included in Hiren’s Boot CD.

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High DPI Windows Features

Feature Windows XP Windows Vista Windows 7 Windows 8 Windows 8.1
DPI Virtualization of DPI-unaware apps No Yes Yes Yes Yes
DPI Virtualization of System DPI-aware apps No No No No Yes
API to declare DPI awareness level No Yes Yes Yes Yes
API to declare per-monitor DPI awareness No No No No Yes
APIs to retrieve system metrics and DPI Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Window notification of DPI change No No No No Yes
APIs to retrieve monitor DPI No No No No Yes
Requires reboot for monitor DPI change N/A N/A N/A N/A No
Requires a reboot/log off for system DPI change Reboot Reboot Log off Log off Log off
Per user DPI setting No No Yes Yes Yes
Auto configuration of DPI at first logon No No Yes Yes Yes
Viewing distance incorporated in default DPI calculation No No No No Yes

Login SSH without Password

Create private and public SSH keys:

ssh-keygen -t rsa
For a more secure 4096-bit key, run: ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096
chmod 700 ~/.ssh
chmod 600 ~/.ssh/id_rsa
cat id_rsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys

Note: once you’ve imported the public key, you can delete it from the server.

and finally set file permissions on the server:

$ chmod 700 ~/.ssh
$ chmod 600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys

/etc/ssh/sshd_config file:

# Disable password authentication forcing use of keys
PasswordAuthentication no

Create ppk file using PuttyGen

  1. Click Conversions from the PuTTY Key Generator menu and select Import key.
  2. Navigate to the OpenSSH private key and click Open.
  3. Under Actions / Save the generated key, select Save private key.
  4. Choose an optional passphrase to protect the private key.
  5. Save the private key to the desktop as id_rsa.ppk.

Connect to server using Putty and Private Key

  1. Enter the remote server Host Name or IP address under Session.
  2. Navigate to Connection > SSH > Auth.
  3. Click Browse... under Authentication parameters / Private key file for authentication.
  4. Locate the id_rsa.ppk private key and click Open.
  5. Finally, click Open again to log into the remote server with key pair authentication.

Tested on CentOS6 i386

Preinstalled .Net Framework Versions

Windows XP Home and Professional SP1 includes the MSI-based .NET Framework 1.0 + SP2 in the Additional Components folder on the installation CD. It is not an OS component on this OS.
Windows XP Home and Professional SP2 includes the MSI-based .NET Framework 1.1 + SP1 in the Additional Components folder on the installation CD. It is not an OS component on this OS.
Windows XP Home and Professional SP3 includes the MSI-based .NET Framework 1.1 + SP1 in the Additional Components folder on the installation CD. It is not an OS component on this OS.
Windows XP Media Center Edition (Windows XP SP1) includes the .NET Framework 1.0 + SP2 as an OS component
Windows XP Media Center Edition (Windows XP SP2 and higher) includes the .NET Framework 1.0 + SP3 as an OS component. On Windows XP Media Center Edition, the only way to get the .NET Framework 1.0 SP3 is to install Windows XP SP2 or higher. There is not a standalone 1.0 SP3 installer for this edition of Windows XP.
Windows XP Tablet PC Edition (Windows XP SP1) includes the .NET Framework 1.0 + SP2 as an OS component
Windows XP Tablet PC Edition (Windows XP SP2 and higher) includes the .NET Framework 1.0 + SP3 as an OS component. On Windows XP Tablet PC Edition, the only way to get the .NET Framework 1.0 SP3 is to install Windows XP SP2 or higher. There is not a standalone 1.0 SP3 installer for this edition of Windows XP.
Windows Server 2003 (all x86 editions) includes the .NET Framework 1.1 as an OS component; 64-bit versions of Windows Server 2003 do not include a version of the .NET Framework as an OS component
Windows Server 2003 R2 includes the MSI-based .NET Framework 2.0. It appears in Add/Remove Windows Components as an OS component, but selecting it simply invokes the MSI-based installer. The MSI can be repaired and removed using Add/Remove Programs regardless of whether it is installed via the standalone MSI or via the Add/Remove Windows Components UI.
Windows Vista (all editions) includes the .NET Framework 2.0 and 3.0 as OS components 3.0 can be added or removed via the Programs and Fatures control panel.
Windows Vista SP1 (all editions) includes the .NET Framework 2.0 SP1 and 3.0 SP1 as OS components. 3.0 SP1 can be added or removed via the Programs and Features control panel.
Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 SP1 (all editions) includes the .NET Framework 2.0 SP1 and 3.0 SP1 as OS components. The .NET Framework 3.0 SP1 is not installed by default and must be added via the Programs and Features control panel though.
Windows Server 2008 SP2 (all editions) includes the .NET Framework 2.0 SP2 and 3.0 SP2 as OS components. The .NET Framework 3.0 SP2 is not installed by default and must be added via the Programs and Features control panel though.
Windows Server 2008 R2 (all editions) includes the .NET Framework 3.5.1 as an OS component. This means you will get the .NET Framework 2.0 SP2, 3.0 SP2 and 3.5 SP1 plus a few post 3.5 SP1 bug fixes. 3.0 SP2 and 3.5 SP1 can be added or removed via the Programs and Features control panel.
Windows 7 (all editions) includes the .NET Framework 3.5.1 as an OS component. This means you will get the .NET Framework 2.0 SP2, 3.0 SP2 and 3.5 SP1 plus a few post 3.5 SP1 bug fixes. 3.0 SP2 and 3.5 SP1 can be added or removed via the Programs and Features control panel.
Windows 8 (all editions) includes the .NET Framework 4.5 as an OS component, and it is installed by default. It also includes the .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 as an OS component that is not installed by default. The .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 can be added or removed via the Programs and Features control panel.
Windows 8.1 (all editions) includes the .NET Framework 4.5.1 as an OS component, and it is installed by default. It also includes the .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 as an OS component that is not installed by default. The .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 can be added or removed via the Programs and Features control panel.
Windows Server 2012 (all editions) includes the .NET Framework 4.5 as an OS component, and it is installed by default except in the Server Core configuration. It also includes the .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 as an OS component that is not installed by default. The .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 can be added or removed via the Server Manager.
Windows Server 2012 R2 (all editions) includes the .NET Framework 4.5.1 as an OS component, and it is installed by default except in the Server Core configuration. It also includes the .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 as an OS component that is not installed by default. The .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 can be added or removed via the Server Manager.
Windows 10 (all editions) includes the .NET Framework 4.6 as an OS component, and it is installed by default. It also includes the .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 as an OS component that is not installed by default. The .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 can be added or removed via the Programs and Features control panel.
Windows 10 November 2015 Update (all editions) includes the .NET Framework 4.6.1 as an OS component, and it is installed by default. It also includes the .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 as an OS component that is not installed by default. The .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 can be added or removed via the Programs and Features control panel.
Windows 10 Anniversary Update (all editions) includes the .NET Framework 4.6.2 as an OS component, and it is installed by default. It also includes the .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 as an OS component that is not installed by default. The .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 can be added or removed via the Programs and Features control panel.
Windows Server 2016 (all editions) includes the .NET Framework 4.6.2 as an OS component, and it is installed by default except in the Server Core configuration. It also includes the .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 as an OS component that is not installed by default. The .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 can be added or removed via the Server Manager.
Windows 10 Creators Update (all editions) includes the .NET Framework 4.7 as an OS component, and it is installed by default. It also includes the .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 as an OS component that is not installed by default. The .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 can be added or removed via the Programs and Features control panel.
Windows 10 Fall 2017 Creators Update (all editions) includes the .NET Framework 4.7.1 as an OS component, and it is installed by default. It also includes the .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 as an OS component that is not installed by default. The .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 can be added or removed via the Programs and Features control panel.
Windows 10 April 2018 Update (all editions) includes the .NET Framework 4.7.2 as an OS component, and it is installed by default. It also includes the .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 as an OS component that is not installed by default. The .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 can be added or removed via the Programs and Features control panel.

TPath.DirectorySeparatorChar

(Delphi uses System.IOUtils)

Different versions of Windows seem to behave differently (e.g. \ and / both work on the English versions)

¥ : Japanese version

₩ : Korean version

While the ₩ and ¥ characters are shown as directory separator symbols in the respective Korean and Japanese windows versions, they are only how those versions of Windows represent the same Unicode code point U+005c as a glyph. The underlying code point for backslash is still the same across English Windows and the Japanese and Korean windows versions.

Also, I don’t know of any Windows API function that gets you the system’s path separator, but you can rely on it being \ in all circumstances.

Note File I/O functions in the Windows API convert “/” to “\” as part of converting the name to an NT-style name, except when using the “\?\” prefix as detailed in the following sections.